Isabelle C . Van Gelder, M.D., Hessel F. Groenveld, M.D., Harry J.G.M. Crijns, M.D., Ype S. Tuininga, M.D., Jan G.P. Tijssen, Ph.D., A. Marco Alings, M.D., Hans L. Hillege, M.D., Johanna A. Bergsma-Kadijk, M.Sc., Jan H. Cornel, M.D., Otto Kamp, M.D., Raymond Tukkie, M.D., Hans A. Bosker, M.D., Dirk J. Van Veldhuisen, M.D., and Maarten P. Van den Berg, M.D. For the Competition II Investigators: Lenient versus Strict Rate Control in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is not a benign condition.1 It may trigger symptoms and is connected with stroke and center failure. Previous studies have established that the rates of complications and death were similar in sufferers with atrial fibrillation receiving rate-control therapy and in those receiving rhythm-control therapy.2,3 Therefore, price control is becoming front-series therapy in the administration of atrial fibrillation.

Baran, M.D., Roberta C. Bogaev, M.D., Barbara Elashoff, M.S., Helen Baron, M.D., James Yee, M.D., Ph.D., and Hannah A. Valantine, M.D. For the Picture Study Group: Gene-Expression Profiling for Rejection Surveillance after Cardiac Transplantation Advancements in immunosuppression after cardiac transplantation have increased the prices of 1-12 months survival among recipients to nearly 90 percent. However, acute cellular rejection is still observed during the first year after transplantation and occurs at a lesser rate thereafter.1-4 Rejection episodes are connected with an increased threat of allograft vasculopathy and reduction.5-7 Endomyocardial biopsy has remained the principal method of monitoring for rejection, despite the discomfort and the rare but potentially serious complications of the procedure.8-12 Quantitative assessment of mononuclear-cell gene expression in peripheral-blood specimens has been explored as a way for detecting the rejection of a cardiac transplant.13,14 This approach has been investigated instead of an endomyocardial biopsy13,14 and has led to the advancement and validation of a commercially available test that has been shown to correlate with the outcomes of an endomyocardial biopsy.14 Although this gene-expression test has been used at some cardiac transplantation centers to monitor transplant recipients for rejection,15 it is not compared systematically in clinical practice with the existing standard method of monitoring for rejection with the use of routine biopsies.

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