Radiologic assessments of tumors were performed by investigators every 8 weeks, and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Great Tumors , version 1.1,16 was used to assess tumor responses. Adverse events were categorized and graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03.17 End Factors The principal end point was overall survival, which was defined as the time from randomization to loss of life from any cause. Secondary end points included progression-free survival , response price , price of disease control , and safety. Statistical Evaluation The study was designed to have 90 percent power to detect a hazard ratio for loss of life of 0.75 in the TAS-102 group in comparison with the placebo group, with a one-sided type I error rate of 0.025.After each vaccination, the infants were monitored for 60 mins for immediate adverse events and were also evaluated by qualified medical staff during home visits at 24 and 48 hours. Adverse occasions were classified as small, moderate, or serious in strength and as critical or not significant in consequence. No additional vaccines were administered concurrently with or for an interval of 2 weeks before or after each IPV vaccination. Blood specimens were collected in 4 months , at 8 months, at 8 months 7 days, and at 8 months 30 days. An automated, single-use, heel-stick device was used to get the specimens. The specimens were tested in triplicate with a modified neutralization assay for antibodies to poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3.24,25 The beginning dilution was a reciprocal titer of 8.