3D-printed models of children’s brain anatomy lessen operative threat of complex procedures Boston Children's Hospital physicians report the first instances of children benefiting from 3D printing of their anatomy before undergoing high-risk brain procedures Read more . The four kids had life-threatening cerebrovascular malformations that posed particular treatment challenges. Reporting online today in the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, the physicians describe the use of 3D printing and synthetic resins to create custom, high-fidelity models of the children's vessel malformations along with nearby normal blood vessels. In some cases, the surrounding human brain anatomy was printed. ‘These children had unique anatomy with deep vessels that were very tricky to operate on,’ says Boston Children's neurosurgeon Edward Smith, MD, senior writer of the paper and co-director of the medical center's Cerebrovascular Medical procedures and Interventions Center.